3.4- From 1961 to today: the major works and the influence of cooperation.

Tanganyika gained independence on 9th December 1961 and with freedom began the trend of "africanizing" its administration.

The political changes soon produced effects on the numbers of our community. Graph 3.2, should be considered for the trend shown rather than for the partial data contained. From 1961 the number of repatriations started to get progressively closer to that of the arrivals and to exceed it in 1963. Even if the reservations previously made about the reliability of the data are valid, it is quite clear that there is a tendency which can be explained by the uncertainty generated by the new political order.

Graph 3.2- Arrivals and Repatriations of fellow-countrymen from Tanzania (partial data 1955- 1968)

Source: Elaboration on Consular data.

Immediately after independence in 1961 the Italian Vice Consulate of Dar es Salaam was established. In the following year it became the Embassy of Italy in Tanganyika (30). In the early sixties the first factory for the processing of cashewnuts, TANITA (31), was established with Italian capital. It was a project of distinctive prestige since it introduced new Italian technology for the processing of the nuts. The sector therefore became very important for the economy and developed considerably in the course of the years through the constant presence and participation of Italians.

At the beginning of 1964, according to the estimates made by the Embassy, the Italian community amounted to about 1,400 persons (328 in the area of Dar es Salaam).

From 12 to 18 January 1964 a violent revolt broke out in the islands of Zanzibar (Unguja and Pemba) and led to the birth of the People's Republic of Zanzibar. The United Republic of Tanzania was constituted on 26 April 1964 by the unification of Zanzibar and Tanganyika. In 1965 many rights of concession on lands previously assigned to European citizens were revoked: such measures affected above all British citizens, but there were also cases of Italians who lost their property. In view of the difficult economic situation of the islands, the Italian Government decided to protect those Italians who suffered damage as a consequence of these political events. Therefore in 1966 the provisions in favour of the refugees from some African countries were extended to fellow-countrymen repatriated from Zanzibar.

The very high numbers of arrivals of Italians in Tanzania that are shown for the years 1964-1967 in the graph 3.2 could be deceiving. They are mainly due to the construction by Snamprogetti (ENI group) (32), of the refinery of Dar es Salaam, opened in 1966. Before the building of the refinery a partnership (at 50%) was constituted between ENI and the Tanzanian Government. The partnership took the name of TIPER (Tanganyikan and Italian Petroleum Refining Co. recently renamed Tanzanian and Italian Petroleum Refining Co.). TIPER then decided to finance the construction of an oil pipeline of 1,700 km into Zambia (TAZAMA) from Dar es Salaam to Ndola. The oil pipeline, completed in 1968, was built by Snamprogetti with the collaboration of SAIPEM. It can be considered as the first case of Italian "technological emigration" toward Tanzania. As will be clear further on, the phenomenon has grown to become one of the features of the flow of our fellow-countrymen in more recent years.

In the second half of the Sixties Intersomer, in joint-venture with the governments of Tanzania and Zambia established the TANZAM company for the transportation of goods to and from Zambia (33). The company imported many Italian vehicles (450 FIAT trucks) and specialized personnel. In the mid Sixties the company Federici, in consortium with Stirling-Astaldi, was among the firms commissioned to build the dam at Kidatu.

The large number of Italian employees in the numerous works in progress involved a growth of the number of Italian families concentrated above all in Dar es Salaam. For this reason the Italian school "Dante Alighieri", was founded in 1967, initially only with primary classes, but afterwards, for a brief period, also as a lower secondary school.

Nyerere's decision on nationalization which followed the Arusha Declaration (34) took place in 1967. This had a remarkable effect not only on the economic life of the country, but also on the presence of foreigners, Italians included. Nevertheless the nationalization of 1967, which involved above all the banks, insurance companies, cigarettes, beer and metal work factories and sisal plantations, did not affect the property of our fellow-countrymen. Therefore no exodus of Italians took place.

In order to understand the economic state of Tanzania at the end of the sixties it is sufficient to observe the data concerning the new arrivals of Italians in 1969 and in 1970. The data collected by the local Authorities (Table 3.4) clearly shows that from one year to another there is an abrupt reduction of more than 50% The age range of the new arrivals remains constant with a concentration in the working class aged 30 and 40 years, with a large number also in the age group 20-29 years. It is interesting to note that in 1969 the 116 (35) newly immigrated Italians in Tanzania constituted 6% of the total of the new arrivals which amounted to 1,833 individuals, while in 1970 the percentage, calculated on the total of the immigrants of 1,525 individuals, was only 3%.

Table 3.4 - New Arrivals in Tanzania from Italy (1969-1970)

Age Group               1969           1970       

0 -19                    19              4        

20-29                    29             11        

30-39                    30             18        

40 - 49                  23              4        

50 - 59                  5               3        

60 and over              6               0        

Others                   4               1        

Total                   116             41        

Source: United Republic of Tanzania - Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Economic Affairs and development planning (1971 e 1972).

Starting from 1970 the growth of our community, strongly committed not only to large infrastructural projects, but also to investment in productive activities in the country, abruptly ceased. Most of the manpower at the end of the sixties was absorbed by SNAM for the construction of the Oil pipeline between Tanzania and Zambia. Other Italian workers were employed mainly by TIPER, Intersomer, Federici, Stirling- Astaldi, TANITA, Tanganyika Packers and Williamson Diamonds. The workers were concentrated in Dar es Salaam, where around 50% of the entire community resided, till the end of '69. Other important concentrations were registered in Mwadui (for the diamond mines ), Arusha and Tanga.

The property nationalization of 1971 and that of the coffee plantations in 1973 affected Italian interests more than the previous ones had (36). Naturally the economic situation generated from the process of africanization of economic and commercial activities caused a marked increase in repatriations to Italy in the early seventies. Many of the Italians employed on the farms or in diamond extraction (Williamsons Diamond of Mwadui) were obliged to quit their jobs.

Many technicians and experts also left Tanzania. Therefore the presence of officers, managers, entrepreneurs and of tradesmen, was reduced, although a substantial group of employees and of specialized workers remained. It became clearer that the Italian presence was conditioned by the economic cooperation, more than by the real potential of development of the country. Taking into account the extremely unfavourable economic situation at the beginning of the seventies, the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs extended refugee status to its national who repatriated from Tanzania, limited before only to Zanzibar, already mentioned earlier. In order to better evaluate the entity of the repatriations as result of the situation in Zanzibar after the Revolution and in Tanzania after the nationalization it is possible to observe the data summarized in Table 3.5.

Table 3.5 - Certificates of Refugee status released by the Embassy (Partial data 1971-1976)

Year of return to  Males      Females    Total      
     Italy1971               10         8          18         

1972               14         8          22         

1973               10         7          17         

1974               30         20         50         

1975               6          6          12         

1976               11         8          19         

Total              81         57         138        

The Italian community in the mid seventies continued to be concentrated in the area of Dar es Salaam and in the area around the Kilimanjaro. In the regions of Iringa and Dodoma the presence of Italian missionaries remained important. Apart from missionaries the Italians were mainly technicians, specialized workers and employees in local companies.

At the end of the seventies Tanzania faced a serious economic crisis due to the combined action of three particularly remarkable events for the Country. Two worldwide phenomena: the increase in the cost of oil and the fall in price of some of the country's main export products have to be added to the specific local event of the war of 1979 against Uganda. These factors considerably affected the possibilities of work for foreigners. It is only at the end of the seventies that the Italian presence assumes a shape that it will consolidate in the following years.

There are five principal components that can be considered (in reference to the end of the seventies):

a) Italian nationals who had settled in Tanzania before the independence of the country, with activities concentrated in commerce and small entrepreneurship (about 100);

b) Italian nationals employed in branches or agencies of Italian companies working permanently in Tanzania, such as ENI, Incar (Fiat), Alitalia (approximately 60 workers with their respective families);

c) Italian nationals employed under contract by Italian companies engaged in the building or running of industrial plants or civil engineering work among which was Strade COOP engaged in the construction of the Mtera dam on the Great Ruaha River (the total workforce of this scheme amounted to about 500 individuals, families included);

d) Italian members of religious orders (about 300-350) (see Chap. 4.1).

e) fellow-countrymen engaged in programmes of technical assistance financed by the Italian Government (mainly doctors and paramedical personnel).

In the second half of the eighties especially, Italian cooperation increased its commitments which led to an increase in the number of Italians employed in companies engaged on large scale projects.

Italian-Tanzanian cooperation became significant in the economic and social sectors starting from the eighties. In 1981 Italy opened a credit line facility in favour of Tanzania for 50 million dollars. On top of that 3 million dollars were made available as a grant to be used for development in priority sectors. In the following two years Italy extended the range of its support, and decided to finance another series of initiatives in the agro-industrial sector, (particularly cashewnuts) and infrastructure (particularly road transport and railways.) There were also some health projects in Zanzibar and in the Region of Iringa.

At the end of 1983, while the total volume of aid to Tanzania appears to decrease due to the contrast with the International Monetary Fund, Italy consolidated its own commitment to the country through new projects in the energy and infrastructural sectors.

In 1985 a new cooperation programme was worked out committing a total of 70 million dollars ( 28 million as grants and 42 million as soft loans) 40. These commitments are mainly destined for the rehabilitation, the continuation and the completion of initiatives previously decided. With such an involvement Italy became one of the principal bilateral donors of Tanzania. For a few years it out flanked the Scandinavian countries, so long seen as the predominant donors.

In the nineties our commitment is decreasing progressively because of reorganization of our aid and because of unfavourable economic events in our own country which have brought an overall reduction in the funds available. Despite these problems the Tanzanian debt with Italy (over 300 million dollars) was cancelled in 1992 but as a direct result, according to Italian law, Tanzania will not be able to have access to soft loans.

Figure 3.1 - Italian-Tanzanian bilateral Cooperation 1980 - 1991 (Disbursements in billion of lira)

Source: MAE, DGCS Conference on development cooperation, 1991 and ISTAT data.

Some interesting observations derive from an examination of the trend in the value of the aid (grants and soft loans) shown in Figure 3.1. First of all it has to be noticed that from an examination of the available data, it is not possible to prove any correlation in the eighties between cooperation funds and Italian exports. In particular one notes that the years 1987/1988, two years of very rapid growth of cooperation, coincided with a period of stability in Italian exports to Tanzania which were less than the value of the aid given. In 1987 where the disbursed aid was around 160 billion lira, Italian exports were only 100 billion Lira.

On the other hand, in the years 1989-1990, inspite of a decrease in disbursement there was a growth in exports. Another particular in the trend described is represented by the fact that the exports of 1985 coincide with those of 1989 even though the levels of cooperation of these two years were very different. Examining the case of Tanzania it is then difficult to believe that the cooperation aid has been a determining factor for the commercial exchanges between Italy and Tanzania. It is probable that the determinants of the flows of goods and services between the two countries are to be sought elsewhere.

The process of commercial penetration can be successful only through a continuous presence. In the specific case of Tanzania it has also to be considered that Italians have been active all over the territory, without ever concentrating on specific regions. It has thus been even more difficult to keep a high profile and to consolidate commercial links. The uncertain financial resources and planning, that characterized our bilateral cooperation in the eighties did not envisage any continuity in the aid. With this situation the positive effects were enjoyed only in the short term,and there was no consolidation which could lead to long term advantages.

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