(1) For further details see also the volume "Profilo statistico dell'emigrazione italiana nell'ultimo quarantennio" of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs cited in the bibliography. The limits come from the source of the provided data, due to the difficulties encountered by the diplomatic authorities in their calculations. They are often obliged to make very approximate estimates of the Italians presents in the Country of accreditation.

(2) Other definition used to describe the same phenomenon is technological emigration.

(3) A captain in the Bersaglieri, Casati, had been sent to Africa in 1880 by the Commercial Society of Information from Milan. Mr Emin Pasha(governor of Equatoria) requested the mentioned society to provide an officer capable of constructing geographical maps to join the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition

(4) The events that led to the signature of the treaty of 1885 are described by the d'Albertis: "In April 1885, shortly after the occupation of Massaua, the royal envoy Barbarigo was sent to visit the island of Zanzibar, the coasts of the mainland dependent from this Sultan and to explore the mouths of the Giuba river; at the same time captain Cecchi, then consul general in Zanzibar and the commander of the Barbarigo, had to start negotiations for a commercial treaty between Italy and the Sultan of Zanzibar and explore if he was disposed to any territorial concessions in Somalia. The result was a commercial treaty in which Italy was considered as the most favoured nation, but no concession of territories was granted ." (d'Albertis, 1906, page 103).

(5) The Consulate of Italy of 2nd Category in Zanzibar was officially instituted only on 29 November 1885 and the first incumbent was Vincenzo Filonardi, although requests and proposals for the constitution of the Consulate had already been advanced at the beginning of 1880 (MAE, 1967, page 353). On 29 December 1889 the Consulate was upgraded to 1st category and Giovanni Bianchi was officially appointed Consul General for a short period. In February 1891 eng. Robecchi Bricchetti, during his stop over in Zanzibar on his way to Benadir, gave this description of Filonardi: " friend Filonardi, who besides being Honorary Consul of Italy in Zanzibar, has also founded an important import-export house . This is our only trade representation : and the boldness and the perseverance of Filonardi, for which he has been rightly praised, brought him luck, since his company prospers and points to a splendid future " (Robecchi Bricchetti (1899), page 35). The same author also reports the following biographical notes that highlight the particularly interesting figure of Filonardi: "Born on 23 December 1853 in Rome; he devoted himself to nautical studies and in 1880, in Genoa, obtained his captain's licence. He sailed for a year or two, visiting the Indies; then he decided to establish farms on the Eastern coast of Africa and to found a commercial firm in Zanzibar. After having saved enough money, he settled in that town where he soon acquired respect and esteem. Under Minister Mancini he pointed out to the Government, the wealth of the Zanzibar and the Benadir coast. Hon. Mancini, who wanted to appoint a Consul of 2nd category, chose Filonardi, and that was the beginning of his short, but bright career " (Robecchi Bricchetti 1899, page 88).

(6) The negotiations were not conducted in a very diplomatic way and they ended in the severing of relations between Italy and Zanzibar. In fact the request of transfer of Chisimaio had been advanced as a consequence of the failed hearing to the Sultan to whom Filonardi was supposed to deliver a letter from the King of Italy. Seyyid Khalifa rejected the request considering it offensive and Filonardi found nothing better to do than haul down the Italian flag from the Consulate and break the friendly relations up to then entertained with the Sultan (Hollingsworth L.W, 1953, pages 23-24.)

(7) Among these could be mentioned: the Convention signed by the Charge' d'Affaires of Italy and by the Director of the British Imperial Company of Eastern Africa, concerning the concession to the company by the Sultan of Zanzibar, of territories on the Eastern coast of Africa and their successive transfer to Italy (London, 3 August 1889) and the proclamation of the Sultan of Zanzibar Hamid Bin Twain, in order to advise the concession to Italy of the harbours of Benadir (Gazette of Zanzibar, 22 July 1893.) The text of the proclamation is quoted by Robecchi Bricchetti, who also describes the events which led to the decision to grant Italy the administration of Benadir (Cfr. Robecchi Bricchetti (1899), pages 44-46)

(8) Even before the First World War Italians were engaged in the exploitation of minerals. A good example is the case of Raoul Mose' Bayona who arrived in Tanganyika in 1912 and settled in the area of Bukoba as local agent of the Italian firm Frigerio & Co. of Mombasa. During the First World War he was interned by the Germans in the internment camp at Tabora, where he remained until this area was liberated by Belgian troops (September 1916). After this Bayona started the exploitation of a tin mine which he owned in the area of Bukoba. During the Second World War the mine was put under the custody of the British and Bayona was sent to a Prisoner of war camp first in South Africa, then in Southern Rhodesia. After the liberation Bayona went back to Bukoba and all his property was returned to him. He remained in Tanzania up to his death in 1964.

(9) See also V. Briani, Il lavoro italiano in Africa, Tipografia Riservata del Ministero degli Affari Esteri, Roma, 1980, page 188-191.

(10) The League of Nations set Tanganyika under British Trust.

(11) For further information on the spread of the Catholic Church in Tanzania see S. Rweyemamu and T. Msambure "The Catholic Church in Tanzania", Benedectine Publications, Tanzania, 1989.

(12) In order to know the immigration regulations in Tanganyika Territory see "Bolletino dell'emigrazione" of April 1925. Such rules were substantially dictated with the intention of preventing the entry of paupers, but didn't contain particularly restrictive measures.

(13) Mr. Pietro Sibilia arrived in Tanganyika in 1926 and, before settling in Morogoro, toured the Country practising many different activities. The sisal plantation in Morogoro was among his property confiscated by the British during the Second World War, but at the end of the conflict it was given back to the legitimate owner who rehabilitated it and brought it back into production. In 1960 Sibilia decided to return to Italy on the eve of the Independence of Tanganyika.

(14) The latter owned a personal aeroplane which he utilized to flee to Italy at the beginning of the war in 1940. Before the flight he buried the gold that he had extracted. He recovered the precious metal, some years after the end of the war, using the map that he had drawn before leaving.

(15) It was a branch of the "Central Railway" (Dar es Salaam - Kigoma) of about 150 Km. in a northerly direction towards Singida. The line was completed at the beginning of 1933, but because of the necessity to compact the earth after the rains it was opened to the public only on 1 April 1934. The line very soon proved to be uneconomic and it was closed in 1947 (see Hill, Permanent Way, page 216).

(16) The Commissariato Generale of the Emigration was suppressed in April 1927 and was replaced by the General Directorate of the Italians abroad in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

(17) According to what is reported by M.F. Hill (1957, page 254) the Italians transferred to the Union of South Africa at the end of 1940 were 58.

(18) It is interesting to quote the testimony of one of them, Mr. Carlo Malaguti on his experiences which was, probably similar to that of many other Italian internees, he reports: "At the outbreak of the last war I was in Addis Ababa where I resided with my uncles in Viale Mussolini. (..) Ethiopia was occupied by British troops. The occupying authorities ordered the evacuation and the internment in detention camps of all men between 15 and 60 years of age if they were fit for military service. The contingent with which I was serving was forced to leave, under armed escort, by railroad from Addis Ababa up to Dire Daua; then with a British military convoy till Argheisa (ex British Somalia) to a camp. From Argheisa to Dar es Salaam by sea and from this city by railroad to Tabora (...) where there was an internment camp for Italian civilians coming from the ex colonies. In this camp there were about 3.000 people. After the armistice permission was granted to those who wished to work with the British. (...) I was employed by the East African Railways Department (...); the work consisted in tracing a road for a railway link to connect the mines of Mpanda to the main railway line from Tabora to Kigoma (...) my status was always that of a civilian prisoner lent temporarily to the applicant corporate body. Toward the end of 1946, in November, all the Italians (...) received the order to return to the camp for repatriation. In December 1946 I went back and presented myself to the camp of Tabora from where, together with other Italians, we began the return journey to our country. To Dar es Salaam by railroad and then by sea up to Naples where I disembarked on January 1947."

(19) In the consular archive of the Embassy there are several dossiers on fellow-countrymen who were interned in Tanganyika. Among others one remembers the application for a war pension of Mr. Andrea Rinaldi (born in 1913) who spent a period of detention in Prisoner of War camp no.1 at Tabora. Other Italians did not have the same luck as Mr. Rinaldi and they died during their stay in the camps. A different source is the grave of Augusto Ascari, buried in the Irish Catholic cemetery of Zanzibar. Ascari was one of the Italian prisoners who, towards mid April 1943, embarked on the British boat "Sontay". He died on board and during a stop in Zanzibar, was buried there.

(20) According to what is reported by Pennington in "Refugees in Tanganyika during the Second World War" the attitude of the Italians earned them the privilege of having their own farm within the camp where they cultivated vegetables and their own workshop which produced violins for the camp ochestra.

(21) One of them died in a train accident on his way back to Tanga for eventual repatriation.

(22) One in Moshi.

(23) According to Doctor Sannasardo, camp physician , most of the deaths from blackwater were due to the carelessness of the prisoners who that did not adopt the necessary precautions. Blackwater fever is a complication of malaria that causes ematuria. It can derive from unsatisfactory hygiene.

(24) In some cases the Italian internees, above all those who were employees in the farms, returned to Italy with a contract that engaged them to come back to Tanganyika where they could continue, as free men, the activity that they had previously performed as "prisoners." Others were returned the properties that had been confiscated.

(25) Among them at least two should be mentioned since they are still active in Tanzania: Corrado Tognetti and Vittorio Biasci.

(26) The manager of the company Vittorio De Amicis contributed considerably to the success of the enterprise

(27) The constitution of the club was made possible thanks also to a substantial loan given by Mr. Sibilia (see par. 3.2). The club, which in 1964 took the name of Selander Bridge, constituted a meeting place for the Italian community up to the first half of the seventies.

(28) The company, founded by Giovanni Montali and Rosendo Gianola, still exists today, but is not owned by Italians anymore.

(29) Cfr. Report to the United Nations on administration of Tanganyika, 1955, page 81.In order to have an idea of the amount of transport practiced by such a company, it is sufficient to look at the data contained in the report. In 1954 Italian boats berthed 96 times at Dar es Salaam, for a total tonnage of 290.838, that set our Country in fifth place for maritime traffic.

(30) The first Charge' d'Affaires ad interim, Luciano Falco, was appointed on 8 February 1962. In the following thirty years he has been succeeded by 7 Ambassadors.

(31) Such important investment was realized thank to the commitment of Carlo Martelli who for many years represented the focal point of the cashewnut industry in Tanzania. He also worked for the Tanzanian authorities in many different important areas. He is mentioned also by Luca Goldoni in his book "La tua Africa" (1986, page 38-39) where the author remembers when he met Mr Martelli greeting him with "Doctor Cashewnuts, I presume", paraphrasing the historic words at the meeting between Stanley and Livingstone.

(32) Saipem, Nuovo Pignone, Petrolchemical and Stirling Astaldi collaborated to the civilian and assembly work.

(33) It was mainly crude oil that was hauled to Zambia using special containers (bladders) that once arrived at destination were emptied and folded, leaving the flat bed free to carry from Zambia other goods (above all copper bullion ).

(34) The Arusha Declaration of 5 February 1967 constitutes the basis of the policy of "African Socialism" pursueded by Tanzania in the following years. The main objectives of the new policy can be summarized as follows: 1) fairer distribution of income; 2) rural development; 3) independence from foreign loans; 4) economic development through a state controlled economy.

(35) The data of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs contained in the publication "Problemi del lavoro italiano all'estero", relating to the same year, reports instead 105 expatriated to Tanzania, of which 60 were males and 45 females. Such differences are normal if the limits of the survey and of the errors that such limits necessarily involve are considered.

(36) An estimate made at that time of the value of the nationalized properties was about 120 million Italian lira for the premises and around 60 million for the plantations. British, Indian (mostly of British nationality), Swiss and German citizens were naturally the hardest hit by the nationalization. In order to have an idea of the proportions it is sufficient to say that the provisions of 1971 and of 1973 affected about 3,000 properties and only 10 of these (7 buildings and 3 plantations) belonged to 8 Italian citizens.

(37) Cfr. Report to the United Nations on Administration of Tanganyika, 1955, page 88.

(38) For more details on the history of the Passionist Fathers' settlement, see G. Cortesi, P. Tarchini, Africa, un'avventura di cinquantanni in Tanzania. Clusone, Editore Cesare Ferrari, 1984.

(39) Many books about Tanzanians available in Italian have been written by Italian missionaries, particularly for the study of Kiswahili language (Vittorio Merlo Pick, Vocabolario Kiswahili - Italiano / Italiano - Kiswahili, E.M.I., Bologna, 1978 and, by the same author, Grammatica della lingua Swahili, E.M.I., Bologna 1988 and Manuale di Conversazione Italiano - Swahili, E.M.I., Bologna, 1988. By Gian Luigi Martini, Kiswahili, una lingua per l'Africa del domani, E.M.I., Bologna, 1984).

(40) Mention is made in the 1980 study "Research on Italian technological Emigration of the 80's in Italy" (MAE 1983). The main industries undertaken by Italian companies abroad come under the umbrella of these two sectors. Consideration has to be given however to the fact that the area taken into account in the study was the whole of East Africa, i.e. Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda (inclusive), Somalia, Ethiopia and Sudan - see page 92.

(41) For further details on CUAMM's activities in Tanzania, one should consult the periodical "CUAMM Notizie". Editions n.1 - n.2 1989 of particular interest in that they contain some special references to Tanzania. The book "Costruire a Sud del Sahara" by Stefano Illing and Giovanni Cappe' gives a very detailed account related to the noteworthy project concluded by CUAMM at the Iringa Regional Hospital (see pages 29-36).

(42) The story and an ample description of the characteristics behind the project are told in the book "Nella Terra dei Fiori di Tembwe" by Francesco Tosi, Quaderni CEFA, Nuova serie n.2.

(43) In the same year most of the tourists who visited Tanzania came from Kenya (27,891), USA/Canada (16,486), Great Britain (15,512), Scandinavian countries (11,143) and Germany (6,620).

(44) Concerning the influence of technical cooperation on migration flows it is worth mentioning the Chinese case. In the seventies, during the construction of the railway which links Tanzania with Zambia (TAZARA) the number of Chinese people in Tanzania reached the 10,000 units.

(45) The Italians were 35 according to the data of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

(46) The data concerning people of Arab origin are not available for 1931.

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