Through a study of the data and of the information available one can determine categories on the basis of the degree of stability, i.e years of residence in the Country, of the individual components. The analysis will thus be carried out by studying the three major groups that make up the Italian community in Tanzania: those in religious orders, those employed by companies/firms and Italians involved in non governmental organizations.

5.1- Italians in religious orders

The group that is certainly most stable is that of Italians in religious orders. Once arrived in the country, they tend to reside for particularly long periods which almost always exceed ten years and may even extend to over thirty years. For this group of people it is far easier to effect an estimate of their numerical consistency, as one may assume that there are no notable changes from one year to the next.

The events that led to the arrival of the first Italian missionaries in Tanzania are linked to the first world war." The 1914-18 war also had repercussions in East Africa and brought poverty, confusion and misery to all the missions. When, in 1917, the German army fled to Nyasaland and Tanganyika fell under British military administration, all the German missionaries were imprisoned or repatriated [...] Under the British administration, the Swiss Benedictines took over from their German brethren, and asked for additional help from Switzerland and from the Missionaries of the Consolata order of Turin " (Cortesi Tarchini, 1984, Page 38 - 39).

In order to understand the difficulties experienced by the missionaries at the end of the First World War it is enough to quote what Di Martino writes in his "Carteggio di un prestito per il Regno"(Documents of a loan for the Kingdom): "Once the British administration was established in Tanganyika, the Benedictine missionaries which operated in the Apostolic Vicarage in Dar es Salaam were all repatriated [...] Of the old Benedictine settlers only three fathers were allowed to remain, as they were Swiss. In the villages, the Africans became increasingly convinced that they could forget and close once and for all that period of history with all its promotional stimuli as the missionaries would never return."

With the resumption of missionary activity immediately after the end of the First World War in 1919, the first Italian missionaries arrived. Since then the flow of Italians from religious orders has been on the increase, so much so that in 1954 our missionaries in Tanganyika were 194 and constituted the fourth largest national group among the Catholic missionaries originating from foreign countries, after the Germans (370), the Dutch (298) and the Swiss (218) (37) 41. In proportion to the total of 1,435 Catholic missionaries, the Italians, approximately thirty years after the first arrivals, already represented 13% of the total. The social and humanitarian activities of the Italian missionaries were concentrated in two areas which were very important for the poor population they assisted: the Missionary Hospital of Tosamaganga (Consolata Fathers) and schools in different regions of the Country (Passionist Fathers, Capuchin Fathers and Consolata Fathers ).

Table 4.2 - Distribution of Religious in Tanzania according to their Order (1992)

Fathers                            Sisters                          Consolata Fathers               59 Consolata Sisters             72 

Capuchin Fathers                21 Misericordia's Sisters        32 

Passionist Fathers              16 Canossian Sisters             19 

Precious Blood Fathers           9 Ivrea Sisters                 18 

Stigmatine Fathers               4 Precious Blood Sisters        10 

Camaldolese Fathers              4 Addolorata Sisters             3 

Rosminian Fathers                1 Saint Vincent Sisters          3 

                                   Camaldolese Sisters            3 

Fathers from Dioceses of         7 Charity Sisters                1 
Bologna, Agrigento and                                              

Franciscan Fathers               1 Infant Jesus Sisters           3 

                                   Carmelitan Sisters             1 

Others                           1 Collegine Sisters              4 

                                   Pauline Sisters                2 

Total Fathers                  123 Total Sisters                173 

Total                          296                                  

According to data available for 1993, the Italians in religious orders present in Tanzania are 284, of which 60% are nuns. Their distribution over the territory is very diversified and covers large parts of the country, the highest concentrations being in the regions of Dodoma, Iringa and Dar es Salaam .

The main religious order is that of the Consolata with a presence of 59 fathers, being 50% of the Italians missionaries. The 72 Consolata sisters represent almost the same percentage of all the Italian nuns present.

As previously mentioned, historical reasons justify such a situation since the Consolata Fathers were the first Italian missionaries to arrive in Tanzania in April 1919. They had been present in neighboring Kenya since 1902. The first 4 missionaries indeed came from Kenya to temporarily help with starting evangelical work in the central part of Tanganyika. The limitations met and the difficulties endured by the fathers have been thoroughly described in the volume of Di Martino (1987.) In 1922 the four "pioneers" were joined by two new brethren and in the same year the Apostolic Prefecture of Iringa was created and entrusted to the Consolata Fathers who established their headquarters at Tosamaganga. It is interesting and significant to examine Chart 4.3 which shows the location of the missionaries (and the distances they had to cover) in 1923, when the first Apostolic Prefect, Mons. Francesco Cagliero arrived. Evangelization was quickly expanding and, in 1946, the area of Iringa entrusted to the Consolata Fathers, already numbered 21,000 Christians (Oliver R. 1965, page 235).

Table 4.3 - Distribution of the Consolata Missionaries (1923)

Missions         Missionaries              Walking Distance (in days)     Tosamaganga      Fr.G. Panelatti   from Kilosa             10        

Madibira         Fr.G. Ciravegna   from Tosamaganga        4         

Mchombe          Fr.G. Cavallo     from Tosamaganga        10-12     

Sangi            Fr.P. Albertone   from via Mchombe        15        

Bihawana         Fr.D. Spinello    from Tosamaganga        10-12     

Pandangani       Fr.D. Vignoli     from via Bihawana       14-16     

Mpanga           Fr.D. Ferrero     from via Mchombe        15-16     

Merera           Fr.F. Sciolla     from via Mchombe        12        

Source: Di Martino (1987)

The Consolata Fathers are currently present in over twenty missions distributed in the different districts of Iringa Region.

The Capuchin and Passionist Fathers also constitute a significant component of the Italian clergy present in Tanzania with 21 and 19 persons respectively.

The Passionist Fathers and the Misericordia Nuns arrived in Tanzania in December 1933. This first group originated from the congregation of Passionists in northern Italy and was composed of five missionaries. The six nuns belonged instead to the congregation of the Misericordia' nuns of Verona. They settled in the central area of Tanzania which currently corresponds to the districts of Dodoma, Kondoa, Mpwapwa and Manyoni. Even today the location of Passionist Fathers is the result of their initial settlement in Dodoma Region (38).

The first Italian Capuchin fathers arrived in Tanzania in June 1963. The group consisted of five fathers from Tuscany, to whom the District of Mpwapwa in Dodoma Region was entrusted. Initially they settled in Mpwapwa and Kibakwe. Their activities in the district expanded rapidly and the Capuchin fathers now have 7 parishes.

The Stigmatine Fathers settled in Tanzania in 1975 and are presently concentrated in the Kisanga area of Morogoro Region, . Before that they conducted their activities in the area of Dodoma, residing in Hombolo.

Among other religious orders already mentioned as present in Tanzania, the most recent arrival is the small group of fathers of the Precious Blood Order, which operates mainly in the Singida area.

Following the directive whereby each Italian diocese had to establish its own Missionary Association Centre, the Dioceses of Bologna, Agrigento and Nicosia have their centres in the regions of Dodoma and Iringa.

The religious orders of nuns however are more diversified. Apart from the Consolata Sisters, who first arrived in Tanzania back in 1923, the other orders of Sisters present are the Canossian, Misericordia, Immaculate Conception of Ivrea, Addolorata, Camaldolese, St. Vincent, Divine Saviour, Carmelite, and the Paoline sisters.

The Italian missionaries, fathers and sisters, with their "traditional presence" are possibly the only peeople who appreciate the social realities of this country (39).

Our missionaries are scattered far and wide over the territory with the exception of Zanzibar which has always been a predominantly Muslim society.

The continued involvement of the missionaries and their good relations with their head-quarters in Italy have provided them with the means to build churches, orphanages, hospitals and technical centres.

Often in the past the Italian NGO groups have either assisted or were assisted by the religious groups.

From a study of the geographical distribution of these missionaries the tendency of establishing themselves in defined areas is quite noticeable. No longer does one envisage the missionary as the adventurer who sets forth into the forest in search of converts. It is true that such missions still exist, but most are today living in the modern world where communications and constant contact are readily at hand.

Another tendency worth noting is that whereby the priests and nuns coordinate their respective roles. By this coordination and long experience they have been able to strengthen their humanitarian actions and to develop the ideals of their orders in particular the Catholic Church as a whole.

Fig. 4.3 - Distribution of Italian Religious in Tanzania (1992)

5.2 Italian Companies

To produce an itemized list of all civil and other construction work performed by Italian companies over the last 30 years is quite impossible because many different sectors of the economy have received contributions in the form of construction or rehabilitation by our civil engineers.

A number of the outstanding completed civil works have already been mentioned in the previous chapters, but it is important to have a comprehensive picture of the main Italian companies and their achievements in Tanzania.

The main project and possibly the first of its kind is notably the Tiper Refinery (Tanzanian Italian Petroleum Refinery Co. Ltd.) in Dar es Salaam which was built between 1964 and 1966 by Snam Progetti in collaboration with Saipem.

These two companies laid the oil pipeline from Dar to Ndola in Zambia during 1966-1967 and several years later (1973-1974) doubled the pipeline.

The Eni Group of companies also conducted several prospecting operations doing geological and oil research by seismic data.

The presence of AGIP in Tanzania in a 50% partnership with TPDC stretches back a considerable length of time. AGIP is today one of the major fuel distributors in the country. It has furthermore been seriously involved in oil exploration in different regions of Tanzania but has not been fortunate enough to strike oil. AGIP (Tanzania) Ltd. was constituted in 1960 and is today the second most important company in the field after BP, with a fuel distribution coverage of 24% of the market.

In the early 50's the Turin-based vehicle manufacturer FIAT was introduced to the then Tanganyika under the agency of BOERO & BIAGINI. Later on FIAT reverted to its original name until 1972 when the INTERSOMER Group introduced its new company, INCAR (T) which took over and represented FIAT's interests in Tanzania. Incar expanded its market to include the agricultural sector and trucking businesses.

The early 60's witnessed OLTREMARE taking a foothold in the cashewnut industry. Through a joint venture with Tanzanian participation, a company was formed which still bears the name TANITA. A second plant TANITA II was commissioned in 1978 and 5 other plants have been initiated in Lindi, Mtana, Nachingwea, Newala, and Masasi through World Bank financial backing. The last plant to have been put into operation was at Tunduru.

FEDERICI-STERLING ASTALDI, among other civil works, constructed the Motel Agip, participated in the construction of TIPER (1965-66), the airports of Mtwara (1966-67), Kilimanjaro (1969-70) and Pemba (1973); part of the superficial works at Kidatu Hydro-electric power plant 1971-75, road works related to the stretches between Iyayi-Mahenge (216 Km) and Morogoro-Mahenge (229Km) which were carried out in the 70's.

COGEFARIMPRESIT must take credit for a number of outstanding projects for example: Mtera Hydro-electric plant (1984-89) built in collaboration with ITALSTRADE, CMC and the League of Cooperative Societies.Cogefar's interest has not been solely confined to the Tanzanian mainland but also to the neighbouring islands of Zanzibar and Pemba whose ports have been totally rehabilitated while a major road crossing Pemba from north to south, was built between 1988 and 1992.

Since 1993 Cogefar has been back on the mainland with yet more major projects in hand, i.e. the roadworks Bukombe-Isaka and Kobero-Nyazkasanza.

ABB-SAE SADELMI have together established a name for themselves in the erection of high-tension power lines and the rehabilitation of the National Grid. Some of the areas which have so far been rehabilitated are sections between Makambako-Mbeya, Iringa-Dodoma, (Sadelmi-Cogespi)- Mwanza-Musoma (SAE) - Shinyanga-Mwanza. To date the on-going project connecting Tanzania and Uganda in the Kagera Region is nearing completion.

CONDOTTE D'ACQUA introduced itself onto the scene by taking on the construction of the headquarters of the East African Community building in Arusha in the 70's.

IMPRESA DEL BENACO constructed the 200Km road connecting Mtwara to Masasi which was commissioned in 1977 and the highway from Rusomo-Lusahunga in the north.

GARDELLA rehabilitated the two sisal bag factories in Moshi (re-converting an existing plant in 1978) and one in Morogoro (1979).

Besides these numerous praiseworthy achievements, there are a few others which were not completely successful. These are the shoe factory in Morogoro and the tannery in Mwanza, both of which were projects of ITALMACCHINE of Milan, the baked-brick factory in Dodoma (SACMI IMPIANTI) and yet another brick factory in Dodoma (BONGIOVANNI).

Other similar projects have floundered due to lack of finance and qualified personnel, e.g. Uvinza Salt Plant (IDECO 1982) and the pesticides factory in Moshi (TECNIMONT). Another project which failed owing to adverse changes in market conditions was the meat canning initiative pursued by STAR with the then Tanganyika packers in 1976.

Table 4.4 - Sector by sector distribution of the Italian companies in Tanzania (June 1993)

SECTOR                       COMPANY                                 Building Sector              CISA - COGEFARIMPRESIT - Federici -     
                             Italstrade - Stirling                   

Construction(mechanic,       ABB SAE SADELMI - Ansaldo Trasporti -   
hydraulic, electromechanic,  CISE - Ideco -Oltremare - Tubi          
electronics,etc.).           Sarplast -                              

Consulting                   Consulint -Italconsult - Studio         

Transport                    Ignazio Messina                         

Chemical and Oil             Tecnimont -                             

Textile                      -                                       

Services                     -                                       

It can be observed that Italian companies in Tanzania are mainly engaged in two classical large-scale sectors: civil engineering (mainly roadworks) and mechanical construction (hydraulic and electrical works). These sectors are therefore responsible for nearly all the Italian workforce present in Tanzania (40).

Local companies employing Italian labour are all of a small size, being mainly companies which were founded originally by Italians and operated by single individuals or on a family basis. The only original exception is TIPER, which as previously mentioned, is a Joint-Venture (50%) between ENI and TPDC (Tanzania Petroleum Development Company). Founded in 1963, TIPER manages the operations of the only refinery in the country situated on the Kigamboni peninsula in Dar es Salaam.

Table 4.5 - Sector by sector distribution of local companies owned by Italians in Tanzania (1993)

SECTOR                        COMPANY                                   Building sector               V. Biasci & Co. - CSI Construction Co.-   
                              Heavycom - Italframe - Lagecco -          

Construction(mechanic,        Coastal Steeel Industries - ROCCI         
hydraulic, electromecanic,                                              
electronics, etc.).                                                     

Transport                     Africall -Casagrande Garage -             
                              Intermarine - Incar - - Rigoni -          

Chemical and Oil              TIPER - AGIP Tanzania - Tanzania          

Agriculture                   Monduli Coffee Estates - Dofico -         
                              Darital - Pollo Italia (T) - African      

Services                      Archer's - Baobab Development Ltd. -      
                              Caffe' Espresso- Casanova - Coastal       
                              Travels - Hippo Tours - Mawinbini         
                              Village -Mtoni Marine Centre - Uroa Bay   

Others                        Corber -Msasani Slipway - Phoenix         
                              Freight -Zocca                            

From the projects we pass to the Italian nationals who have greatly contributed to the successful termination of each and every initiative, and to those who still form part of our community and who are still engaged in activities with Italian and local companies. The greater part of this labor force has left the country according to their particular contracts which varied according to their skills and which determined the length of their stay. This is typical in the case of large-scale projects where the workforce is normally larger at the start of the project. As the work progresses, so the workforce dwindles, to the point where upon nearing completion, those remaining are basically the managerial and administrative staff, save for a few highly skilled technicians.

Locally registered Italian companies employ their personnel with no definite periods of contract. These companies however are not of the same entities as those previously mentioned and are mainly family concerns which were established many years ago, e.g. V.BIASCI, ITALFRAME, and the COASTAL STEEL group of companies.

Fig. 4.4 - Distribution of Italians employed in companies (1992)

5.3 - Italians in non-governmental Organizations

For the Italian nationals engaged in NGO activities, a considerable number of the Italian community present in Tanzania, the problems faced are similar to those experienced by the Italian companies previously mentioned.

In fact their stay is generally governed by the termination of the various projects; some short term, others not.

It has been observed however that the workforce referred to has been predominantly male and the age group for specialized staff ranges from 25-30 years, whereas in projects related to programmes of technical cooperation the age group appears to be from 35-40 years.

From the Table provided we can see that 60% of the staff engaged in projects of Health Cooperation belong to CUAMM (NGO) which launched its first programme back in 1968 by experimenting with two mission hospitals situated at Ikonda and Tosamaganga.

Table 4.6 - Italians employed in NGO's (families not included) (1991-1993)

    NGO      1991  1991   1992   1992  1993   1993   1993           Place    M      F     M      F      M     F      T      

CEFA          1      -     1      -      0     0      -                             

COPE          3      1     3      2      1     2      3    Migoli                   

CUAMM         21    15     12     10     9     5      14   Ikonda, Lugarawa,        
                                                           Iringa, Mpwpwa, Kondoa,  
                                                           Tosamaganga, Dodoma,     

LVIA          1      1     3      2      3     2      5    Kongwa                   

SCSF          1      1     -      -      0     0      -    Usokami                  

FOCSIV        -      -     1      1      1     2      3    Chikopelo                

GAO           -      -     1      -      1     2      3    Arusha - Ngorongoro      

CISP          1      -     1      -      -     1      1    Mbulu                    

COSPE         -      -     1      -      1     -      1    Morogoro                 

CVCS          -      -     1      1      1     2      3    Mlali                    

Total         28    18     24     16    17     16     33

The first true project was initiated in 1977 through an agreement between the governments of Italy and Tanzania which resulted in the deployment of Italian medics to regional hospitals in Masasi, Songea, Kahama, Pemba and Dodoma (41). Because of the positive results achieved , this NGO continued to expand and consolidate its activities, gaining respect and praise from local authorities. During the last couple of years, 1992 and 1993 a decline of 30% in medical personnel is to be noted, as a result of the stalling of the approval for new projects by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Rome.

Another NGO worthy of mention is CEFA which in 1980 began its activities by despatching a number of volunteers to oversee an integrated agricultural project in Matembwe (Njombe) (42).

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